Dystonia is treated by a variety of medications designed to reduce muscle spasms. In a few cases, specific surgery may be needed. Focal dystonia’s can be treated with Botulinum Toxin Type A. Botulinum toxin is produced by a bacterium called Clostridium botulinum, which is the bacteria that cause botulism. Botulinum toxin is injected in extremely small amounts directly into affected muscles to “weaken” the muscle or to actually “block” nerve signals telling the muscle to contract. The Botulinum toxin has a relatively short life span (from weeks to several months) as new nerve endings grow, at this stage the injections have to be repeated. It sometimes takes anywhere from 5-10 days for Botulinum toxin to begin affecting the muscles. Treatment for dystonia is designed to help lessen the symptoms of spasms, pain and disturbed postures and functions. Most therapies are symptomatic, attempting to cover up or release the dystonic spasms. No single strategy will be appropriate for every case. The approach for treatment of dystonia may be three tiered: oral medications, botulinum toxin injections and surgery. These therapies may be used alone or in combination.