Normally, an antagonist muscle relaxes when an agonist muscle is contracted. Patients with dystonia have simultaneous contraction of both groups of muscles. Spinal reciprocal inhibition, a process that inhibits the antagonist muscles when the agonist muscles are active, is reduced in patients with writer’s cramp. This is most probably due to aberrant descending commands. Abnormalities in the basal ganglia lead to abnormalities of sensory processing and motor output. The normal increase in cerebral blood flow in the supplementary motor area is reduced in response to vibration and abnormal somatosensory evoked potentials. These provide evidence for the abnormal sensory processing in patients with dystonia. Increased motor cortex excitability along with decreased cortical inhibition causes abnormal motor output.