The etiology of brain tumors remains unclear till date. The various etiological hypotheses are postulated from time to time but none is able to define etiopathogenesis of brain tumors completely. In recent years, a lot of work has been done over molecular basis of brain tumors. Multiple mutations, aberrations, deletions and various genetic gateways are identified and their role in the pathogenesis of brain tumors is established. Some infections like EBV are also responsible for some tumors like lymphomas. Some tumors like craniopharyngiomas, rathke’s cleft cyst, epidermoid, dermoids etc. are considered to be due to aberrant development.